The Translation of Repetition in Shakespeare’s Sonnets (2022)

Abstract: While formal features constituting the outer form of the poem in Spanish, such as the stress pattern or the rhyme, are usually the most evident to the reader and may be particularly relevant to the translator, other mechanisms based on repetition are essential in the rhythmic configuration of the poem. Based on a corpus of sixty-two Spanish translations of Shakespeare’s Sonnets, this article analyses how anaphoras, alliterations and parallelisms have been translated and highlights the significant role that some of these figures play in the target poems.

Keywords: Parallelism, Anaphora, Alliteration, Figures of speech, Poetry translation

How to cite

Escudero, T. (2021). The Translation of Repetition in Shakespeare’s Sonnets, Hermēneus. Revista de Traducción e Interpretación, 23, 151-186. DOI: 10.24197/her.23.2021.151-186.

Metatranslational discourse in poetry translators’ prefaces (2021)

Abstract: If we consider translators’ prefaces or, more generally, paratexts as a place for finding traces of metatranslational discourse, those preceding poetry translations may be one of the best examples of this practise, as they tend to be more frequent and long that those introducing other genres.

Examining a corpus of 54 translatorial prefaces to Shakespeare’s Sonnets into Spanish published between 1877 and 2018, we will see how, in order to account for decisions, the translators discourse often rests on recurrent topoi or ‘translation memes’ (Chesterman 1996; 1997) such as fidelity, equivalence or the superiority of the original, which has been espoused by translators and scholars alike for centuries.

The significance of these ideas in the metatranslational discourse is such that it clearly shows their value beyond a mere explanation of the translation process. This paper interprets these recurrent ideas and of the possible discord that arises between the analyses of the paratexts and the translated texts by resorting to the notion of ‘symbolic capital’ coined by Bourdieu (1984). Hence, it considers that they function as a mechanism to grant prestige and respectability to a given translation both for translators and readers.

Keywords: Paratexts, Poetic translation, Shakespeare’s Sonnets, Symbolic capital, Translation memes, Fidelity

 

This article is part of the doctoral thesis On the Translation of Verse Form. Shakespeare’s Sonnets into Spanish, which seeks to escape the frequent and defeatist idea of translation as loss and to avoid the prescriptivism attached to it. It xamines the translation of the poetic form from a broad perspective, starting from a corpus of 69 Spanish translations of Shakespeare’s Sonnets published in Latin America and Spain between 1877 (when the first translation appeared) and 2018.

The study primarily addresses three aspects, which can be summarised in three basic questions regarding the translation of poetic form: What do the translators say about it? What do they actually do? How do they do it?

 

How to cite

Escudero, T. (2021). Metatranslational discourse in poetry translators’ prefaces. The Translator. https://doi.org/10.1080/13556509.2021.1964217

An Overview of the Translations of Shakespeare’s Sonnets into Spanish (2021)

Abstract

This work provides a compilation of Spanish translations of William Shakespeare’s Sonnets published between 1877, when the first translation of the work appeared, and 2019. Although the original book, published in 1609, did not enjoy great popularity in its early days (Blakmore Evans, 2006: 2), from the beginning of the 19th century, the Sonnets were a source of speculation regarding biographical questions (Burrow, 2002: 2), which may have led to a greater impact of the work in recent centuries, not only in the English-speaking world, but also in the Spanish-speaking world, as shown by this paper. In addition to the translators of this work into Spanish and the dates and countries of publication, this article indicates some relevant characteristics of each of the translations, such as the form used to translate the sonnets, the presence of prologues and other paratexts, or the bilingual/monolingual nature of the editions.

Keywords

Sonnets, Shakespeare, bibliography, Spain, Latin America

How to cite

The Translation of Verse Form. A Revision of Holmes’ Model Based on the Spanish Translations of Shakespeare’s Sonnets (2021)

Abstract: Although it is broadly accepted that a poem is an indissoluble union of content and form, the translation of verse form is frequently overlooked in translation studies or has been addressed under rather prescriptivist approaches, with notable exceptions (Holmes 1994, Jones, 2011, among others).

This paper deals with the translation of the poetic form from a descriptivist perspective from a corpus of 69 Spanish translations of Shakespeare’s Sonnets published between 1877 (when the first translation appeared) and 2018 in Latin America and Spain. It addresses, particularly, the outer form or macrostructure of the poems using one sonnet of each translation as a prototype and considering five parameters, namely the use of prose or verse; the syllabic count; the stress pattern; the rhyme type (consonant, assonant or hybrid); and the rhyme scheme.

This analysis will serve as a basis for classifying these translations according to Holmes’ metapoem forms, two of which derive from form (the mimetic form, where the translator imitates the form of the original as best as they can, and the analogical form, where the translator chooses a form that fulfils a parallel function in the target literature); one that derives from content (organic form); and one that does not derive from either content or form (extraneous form) Once classified in these categories, this paper will propose a revision of Holmes’ model to accommodate the resulting forms.

The variety of solutions translators employ indicates that, while there are certain forms or patterns repeated throughout, there is no preferred way of rendering these sonnets, not even during a specific period. The only thing that seems to be constant is the preference for verse over prose.

Keywords: Poetry translation, Metapoem, Rhythm, Rhyme, Poetic form

This article is part of the doctoral thesis On the Translation of Verse Form. Shakespeare’s Sonnets into Spanish, which seeks to escape the frequent and defeatist idea of translation as loss and to avoid the prescriptivism attached to it. It xamines the translation of the poetic form from a broad perspective, starting from a corpus of 69 Spanish translations of Shakespeare’s Sonnets published in Latin America and Spain between 1877 (when the first translation appeared) and 2018.

The study primarily addresses three aspects, which can be summarised in three basic questions regarding the translation of poetic form: What do the translators say about it? What do they actually do? How do they do it?

How to cite

Escudero, T. (2021). The Translation of Verse Form. A Revision of Holmes’ Model Based on the Spanish Translations of Shakespeare’s Sonnets. Sendebar, 32, 7-29. https://doi.org/10.30827/sendebar.v32.16892

The Translator’s Ideology in the Poetic Text. Homoeroticism in Shakespeare’s Sonnets (2020)

Abstract

This paper tries to contribute to research in the field of poetry translation regarding ideology by studying a very controversial and immensely translated work, Shakespeare’s Sonnets. It has been broadly accepted by the critics that the first 126 sonnets are addressed to a young man, but the nature of the relationship between the speaker of the poem and the addressee is not clear, nor, despite all the theories, is the correspondence between the speaker and Shakespeare himself. From a corpus consisting of thirty-one Spanish translations of Shakespeare’s Sonnets and the prologues written by the translators themselves, we analyse how ideological boundaries can influence the translators’ decisions. Their values and beliefs are, sometimes, quite evident. Such is the case of Fernando Maristany (in Las cien mejores poesías (líricas) de la lengua inglesa. Editorial Cervantes: Valencia 1918) or Tomás Gray (in Sonetos de Amor de William Shakespeare. Al Margen Editores: Santiago de Chile 2002), who have clearly changed the gender of the addressee. There seems to be, on their part, a determination to move Shakespeare’s image away from this young man at the slightest sign of ‘homosexuality’.

Keywords

Rewriting, Manipulation, Ideological constraints, Poetry translation, Homosexuality, Shakespeare

How to cite

Escudero T. (2020). The Translator’s Ideology in the Poetic Text. Homoeroticism in Shakespeare’s Sonnets. In: Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk B. (eds) Cultural Conceptualizations in Translation and Language Applications. Second Language Learning and Teaching. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43336-9_8

Treatment of rhythm and rhyme in Spanish translations of Shakespeare’s Sonnets (2017)

Abstract

Based on the definitions of verse, rhythm and rhyme and the sonnet’s features in both English and Spanish lyrical poetry, this study formally analyzes the meter of a corpus consisting of eleven translations of Shakespeare’s Sonnets (1609) into Spanish, all of them published in Spain between 1990 and 2013. For this analysis we have paid attention to three essential aspects: verse length, stressed syllables pattern and the type of rhyme used by the translator. This has been made in order to observe the rhythm and rhyme treatment in them and draw some conclusions about the degree of formal similarity between the translation and the source text. This degree of similarity has been established from a gradual list of potential correspondences in Spanish for the iambic pentameter used by Shakespeare in his poems.

Keywords

rhythm, rhyme, translation, sonnets, Shakespeare

How to cite

Fernández Escudero, T. (2017). Tratamiento de ritmo y rima en las traducciones al español de los Sonetos de Shakespeare. Meta, 62(2), 350–367. https://doi.org/10.7202/1041028ar

Tratamiento de ritmo y rima en las traducciones al español de los Sonetos de Shakespeare

Resumen

Basándonos en las definiciones de verso, ritmo y rima y de las características del soneto tanto en la lírica hispánica como en la anglosajona, este estudio pretende analizar formalmente la métrica de un corpus formado por once traducciones al español de los Sonetos de Shakespeare (1609), publicados en España entre los años 1990 y 2013. Para este análisis, nos hemos centrado en tres aspectos esenciales: la medida del verso (su cómputo silábico), el patrón acentual o rítmico y el tipo de rima empleada por el traductor, con el fin de observar el tratamiento del ritmo y de la rima y de extraer conclusiones sobre el grado de similitud formal entre la traducción y el texto original. Esta semejanza se ha establecido a partir de una lista gradual de posibles correspondencias en español para el pentámetro yámbico empleado por Shakespeare en sus composiciones.

Palabras clave: ritmo, rima, traducción, sonetos, Shakespeare